Tools, Bowls and other
Archaeologic Finds

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Thank you to one of our local historians,
Bill Taylor of Middleborough for photos and stories.

 

WOODWORKING TOOLS

PECKED AND GROUND STONE TOOLS

by William Taylor

 

Axes, celts, hatchets, gouge and adze blades were stone tools used in early times for making wooden products such as dugout canoes, stockade posts, planks for bed platforms, roof rafters, lodge poles and smaller wood items like bowls and platters. Materials used include regional types such as argillite, quartzite, granite, basalt, hornfelds, sienite, diorite, and schist. (Willoughby-1935).

Full grooved axes are one of the most common type found in this group. They are pecked overall with the bit or cutting edge ground smooth. Axes ar made in all sizes. Large ones were used to cut down large trees, with the use of fire to fell them. Smaller types were used to make smaller products of wood. Middle Archaic to Transitional Archaic times (8000-2700 B.P.).

Three-quarter grooved axes were also made but not so common. These are grooved on three sides with one edge flat. Wedges may have been driven under the flat side to tighten the binding. Thin axes only 2" thick were only grooved on two sides and are a minority type. In rare occasions two grooves are present and may be more of a ceremonial type. Early to Late Archaic Period (9000-3700 B.P.).

Celts are another wood cutting tool. They appear in all sizes but are rarely grooved. A sharp cutting edge is present and celts are usually ground smooth overall. They were hafted by inserting the blade through a wooden handle, that has been enlarged to accommodate the implement. Celts were used from Late Archaic to Late Woodland times (6000-400 B.P.).

Chipped axe (Hatchet Club) is a chipped implement and is never ground. It resembles modern axes in shape and has an expanded blade with a heel (Hoffman-1991). The chipped axe could have been used to cut brush and small sapplings. It also could have been used as a Hatchet Club in times of war. Its age is Transitional Archaic to Late Woodland times (3700-400 B.P.).

Gouge and Adze blades were one of the most important and best made of the woodworking tools. They were used in early times to make dugout canoes and other smaller wooden products. A pine log was chosen for the dugout and the ends shaped and the bark removed. The interior was first marked out and the hollowing started. Then with the use of fire the interior was slowly burned out, the sides being kept wet so as not to burn through. Periodically the fire was stopped in order to remove the charred wood. This process continued until the proper depth was reached. In 1965 an 11 foot dugout canoe was found in Weymouth on a pond bottom that was drained. It was 2 feet wide and 11 inches deep. There are four typesof gouges that were made, all but the Knobbed style have been found in the Titicut area.

 

TYPE PERIOD USED

Channeled Gouge Early Archaic to Middle Archaic (9000-6000 B.P.)

Plain Gouge Paleo Indina to Late Archaic (10000-3700 B.P.)

Grooved Gouge Late Archaic to Transitional Archaic (6000-2700B.P.)

Knobbed Gouge Unknown (Middle Archaic to ?)

 

The Channeled Gouge has a shallow hollowed out bit, which can be straight to flaring and is ground smooth. The poll end usually has a knobbed enlargement and a wide flat trough across the back for hafting.

The Plain Gouge was made in both long and short sizes. Their hollowed-out faces may extend halfway or run full length. The poll end is plain without any grooves or other hafting feature. The Titicut area has many small gouges in the 2 ½" to 4" range, as well as larger sizes in the 6" to 8" range. This form is the most predominate style used along the Taunton River.

The Grooved Gouge is usually short, with a slight flaring bit. It has a moderate hollowed polished bit and across the back are one or two grooves made for hafting.

The Knobbed Gouge has a deeply hollowed out area, often running the entire length of the implement, from blade to poll end. This type has one or two small knobs on the back for hafting. This type is a minority style and little is known about its age. It seems to fit into the Middle Archaic Period (Fowler-1963 and Hoffman-1991).

The Adze is very similar to the Gouge but has a narrow cutting edge, with a flat face. This implement is fairly thick and can be plain or often has one or two grooves across the back for hafting. The Adze appears in the Late Archaic Period (6000-3700 B.P.) (photo above).

 

References:

Fowler, William S.

  1. Classification of Stone Implements of the Northeast. The Massachusetts Archaeological Society Bulletin 25 (1); 1-29

 

Hoffman, Curtiss

  1. A Handbook of Indian Artifacts from Southern New England. M.A.S. Society Special Bulletin No. 4. Revised from 1963 text by William S. Fowler.

 

Willoughby, Charles C.

1935 Antiquities of the New England Indians. Published by the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University-Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

 

 

PESTLES AND MORTARS

 

The Pestle is a horticultural tool and was made in both stone and wood. The shorter sizes in the 5" to 7" range consisted of natural long cobles, that were used during the Late Archaic Period (6000-3700 B.P.) to grind nuts (acorns, walnuts, chestnuts and hickory) roots, tubers and seeds in small stone Mortars (Hoffman-1991).Longer versions in the 10" to 28" range were pecked into shape and had a rough overall surface. The ends were ground smooth from extensive wear. Materials used were slate, schist, sandstone, greywacke and occasionally granite. The 10" to 14" sizes may have been used as rolling pins on a flat surface. Longer versions in the 16" to 28" range were used with large wooden log Mortars in Middle to Late Woodland times (1200-400 B.P.). An oak wooden Mortar acquired from Nantucket Indians in Contact times measured 20" high by 11 ½" in diameter, with 12" deep cavity (Willoughby-1935). Early colonists adopted the Indian style of using wooden pestles and mortars.

Communal Mortars are found occasionally and were probably used by several families. These are large boulders with a natural cavity on top, that was modified to a 3" depth. This depression is smoothed out by pecking to form a 12" to 18" wide dish. This shallow Mortar was probably used with a Muller, which is a shorter and wider grinding tool.

The vast majority of cylindrical pestles had plain surfaces and were used for utilitarian purposes. There are four other styles that appear. Small Pint Pestles are found in the Ύ" by 4" size. These were employed in the crushing of various barks and herbs to make poultices and other medicines. They were also used to grind ocher and graphite in preparing paint to adorn themselves (Indians) for ceremonies or war. (Late Archaic to Late Woodland Period 6000-400 B.P.). Phallic examples occasionally occur, sometimes in long examples. These were perhaps used during corn planting ceremonies in the spring to help insure a bountiful crop. (Late Woodland to Contact Period 1000-250 B.P.). Spring or Tree Pestles have a groove around the middle or a knob at the upper end. These large varieties in the 10 to 15 pound size were tied on to a springy tree such as a birch, with the real weight born by the tree and lifted up. The corn was ground in a large wooden Mortar, by leaning ones weight down into the hollowed log and letting the tree lift the heavy Pestle up. A fine example was found in Burial No. 22 at the Titicut Site. It measures 3" in diameter and is 16" long and weighs 10 pounds, made of granite. (Late Woodland to Contact Period 1000-300 B.P.)

Effigy Pestles are rare and are found in the Late Woodland to Contact Period (500-150 B.P.). Some have ornamented ends with a human face and are called anthropomorphic representations. Zoomorphic examples include animals such as a bear, wolf, snake, eel or birds. The presence of identifiable bodily or facial features may involve supernatural powers. (Volmar-1994) Women were not only food producers of a tribe but often spiritual leaders as well. These Pestles were not used as typical grinding implements and are usually found only in female burials from the Contact Period. Effigy Pestles may have been used by women to heal the sick, to foresee the future or to ward off possible attacks by known enemies. These Pestles often accompanied a woman in death for her use in the afterworld. (Volmar-1994) Locally a Pestle with a human head was found in Taunton. In Middleboro a zoomorphic example was found with the body of an animal mounted atop one end. (Willoughby-1935).

Many Pestles were used as a whetstone to sharpen stone tools. The Tree Pestle in Burial No. 22 at the Titicut Site had four spots on the surface about 1 ½" wide by 3 ½" long that show extensive use as a sharpening stone. Broken Pestles with an oval shape were often used as a sharpening tool also. Small grooves on the surface show use to sharpen bone antler and shell items such as fishhooks, awls, points, harpoons, spears, bodkins, combs, and ornaments.

 

References:

Fowler, William S.

  1. Classification of Stone Implements of the Northeast. The Massachusetts Archaeological Society Bulletin Volume 25 (1); 1-29

 

Hoffman, Curtiss

  1. A Handbook of Indian Artifacts from Southern New England. M.A.S. Society Special Bulletin No. 4. Revisede from 1963 text by William S. Fowler.

 

Volmar, Michael A.

  1. Effigy Pestles from Massachusetts. M.A.S. Bulletin Volume 55 (1); 15-23

 

Willoughby, Charles C.

  1. Antiquities of the New England Indians. Published by the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University-Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

 

 

PLUMMETS AND SINKERS

 

Fishing sinkers are one of the most common implements found along the Taunton River and the major waterways throughout New England. There are four different types of sinkers, that were used in fishing with lines or nets. In addition weirs, seines, and spears were used to catch and trap fish in the Taunton River. Most common species were alewives, blueback herring, American shad, white perch, and rainbow smelts, all caught in large numbers each spring.

Classic Plummet-Early to Middle Archaic Period (9000 B.P.-6000 B.P.). This type has a symmetrical shape similar to a modern plumb bob. It is first pecked into shape and occasionally ground smooth. The base is pointed usually but sometimes rounded, with a well made knob on top. It is made from impure granite, sandstone and other semi-hard stones. The plummet was used as a line sinker in the ocean or tidal river areas, where the bottom is sandy and clean. Plummets have been found in a circle, as if tied on to a net. (Fowler-1963 and Hoffman-1991)

CLUMSY Plummet: Late Archaic to Transitional Archaic (6000-2700 B.P.). This weight is less symmetrical, often made from a natural smooth cobble, with only the knob finished. It is usually made from a softer stone, such as argillite, sandstone, schist, steatite or chlorite. (Fowler-1963).

Grooved Weight: Middle Archaic to Late Woodland (8000-400 B.P.). This type is made from small and large cobbles, with a well-defined groove pecked lengthwise around the stone. This type is thought to be a net sinker. It also could have been used as a Ball-Headed Club, especially if the groove is made transversely across the middle. (Fowler-1963).

Perforated Weight-Hole Stone: Middle to Late Archaic (8000-3700 B.P.) This type is made of a flat pebble and is softer stone. A perforation is pecked through the center and is counter-sunk from both sides. It could be used as a line sinker for the smaller sizes and as a net sinker on the larger sizes. (Figure No. 20)

Side-Notched Weight: Early to Late Woodland Period (2700-400 B.P.) This type is made from a common pebble, which is roughly notched on two opposite sides. These weights occur in number at ocean sites. It is also found at some large inland lakes or pond sites, but is not so plentiful. It is thought to be a net sinker. (Fowler-1963).

Occasionally Plummets come in large sizes along the coast. These are well made and resemble the Classic Plummet. They may have been used as a deep sea sinker or as a canoe anchor. One Indian describes their use as being a decoy for catching large fish such as pickeral or pike. These large Plummets were covered with tallow (lard) and held near the bottom of the lake. Fish hooks were attached to the suspension line, the smell acting as a lure to attract fish to the bait. (Willoughby-1935).

 

References:

Fowler, William S.

  1. Classification of Stone Implements of the Northeast. The M.A.S. Bulletin 25

(1) 1-29.

 

Hoffman, Curtiss

  1. A Handbook of Indian Artifacts from Southern New England. M.A.S. Society Special Bulletin No. 4. Revised from 1963 text by William S. Fowler.

 

Willoughby, Charles C.

1935 Antiquities of the New England Indians. Published By The Peabody Museum Of American Archaeology And Ethnology, Harvard University-Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

 

 

AGRICULTURAL TOOLS

 

Maize arrived locally toward the end of the Middle Woodland Period (1200 B.P.). Shell, bone, and stone hoes and spades were used to cultivate around plants – corn hills, beans, squash, pumpkins, gourds, etc. These tools were also used to dig roots and tubers. There were four types of implements commonly used. (Hoffman – 1991).

Triangular Hoe: Early Woodland to Late Woodland (2700 B.P.-400 B.P.) These hoes have a triangular shape, with a thinned, sharpened working point. They were hafted in a wooden handle. This tools is crudely made of basalt, felsite, sandstone, granite, quartz or quartzite. The base is essentially oblique in shape, so as to haft at an obtuse4 angle that would be easier for the operator of this tool. These hoes were often shaped like natural fire spalls and quite common in southern New England. (Fowler-1963).

Stemmed Hoe: Middle Woodland to Late Woodland (2000 B.P.-400 B.P.) These tools were used during the latter part of the Middle Woodland Period (1500 B.P.). They were usually made with an obtuse rook in the stone (stem end), which was attached to the handle. The bit is thinly chipped, often with an out-flaring blade. (Fowler-1963)

Stemmed Spades: Middle Woodland to Late Woodland (2000-400 B.P.) These tools were larger in size than hoes and used for larger tasks, such as digging storage pits for corn or nuts. These pits can be three to four feet in diameter and over four feet deep. Pits are usually lined with matting or skins to protect the goods within. Several were found on the Taylor Farm in 1951, which contained charred corn or nuts. Apparently a grass fire had burned the contents of these deep pits. These tools were often made from stone slabs of impure granite or schist material. Usually the blade is rounded and often had a definite stem, which was lashed to the handle. (Fowler-1963) These tools were also used to dig burial pits, which are usually deeper than storage pits, being four to six feet deep.

Quahog shells and deep-sea clams were also used as hoes because of their natural curved shape. Also bone shoulder blades of bear or deer were fastened to a wooden handle. (Willoughby-1935)

Corn Planters (Dibble): Middle Woodland to Late Woodland Period (2000B.P.-400 B.P.) This simple tool could be an elongated stone six to eight inches long or a sharpened stick. It was used to make holes in corn hills, into which seeds of maize were placed. Usually made from impure granite, shale or sandstone. (Fowler-1963)

 

References:

Fowler, William S.

  1. Classification of Stone Implements of the Northeast. The M.A.S. Bulletin 25 (1)1-29.

 

Hoffman, Curtiss

  1. A Handbook of Indian Artifacts from Southern New England. M.A.S. Special Bulleetin No. 4. Revised from 1963 text by William S. Fowler.

 

Willoughby, Charles C.

1935 Antiquities of the New England Indians. Published By The Peabody Museum Of American Archaeology And Ethnology, Harvard University-Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

 

 

ATLATL WEIGHTS

 

Spears up to 7’0" long can be thrown by hand 60 to 70 yards. Experimentation through the years taught hunters that by using a spear throwing-stick called an Atlatl (20" to 24" long) and using a whip-like action to release the spear, greater distance (150 yards) and force (deeper penetration) could be achieved. The Atlatl had a bone or antler hook at one end. In time an Atlantl Weight was added to the center of the throwing stick, as a counter-balance or as a good luck charm to aid the hunter in hitting his quarry. Tests have shown that the weight did not increase distance. Most Atlatl Weights have a ½" to 5/8" perforation drilled through the midsection and were mounted in the middle of the Atlatl. The spear thrower is retained in the hand after the javelin is released. Perhaps a leather thong was attached to the Atlatl and to the wrist to help retain the throwing stick in the throwers hand. These Weights were in use throughout the whole Archaic Period (9000-2700 B.P.). There were four different types of Atlatl Weights used locally. (Fowler-1963).

The Bowtie and Oval forms (plain types) were used as utilitarian objects, as well as some of the earlier Wing types. As time went on larger Atlatl Weights, with more beautiful polished forms and exotic stone materials, were used. Many of these seem to be too large and cumbersome to use on the throwing stick. Another theory concerns use of these more artistic forms as ornaments or symbols of rank, mounted to a six foot staff during ceremonial occasions. A further theory suggests they were clan symbols. (Lutz-2000, Koup-2002). This artifact is still one of the most controversial objects used by the Indians. A description of our local types follows:

The Bowtie Style first appears in the Early Archaic Period (9000-8000 B.P.). It was usually notched (not perforated) to tie on to the Atlatl. This earliest type was often chipped into shape, but was also ground and polished. Material used included argillite, sandstone, and slate. (Fowler-1963 and Hoffman-1991).

The Oval type was used from the Early to Middle Archaic Period (9000-6000 B.P.). This form is ground and polished and oval in shape. It often has small grooves around the middle to tie on to the Atlatl. One side has a flat face or is concave. This modification is needed so the Weight can be mounted close enough for fingers to grip the spear shaft. The excessive surface bulge of the oval-shaped weight would hold the shaft away and prevent finger control (Fowler-1963). Materials used include argillite and sandstone, with a perforation through the center.

The Wing type appears in the Late to Transitional Period (6000-2700 B.P.). These forms resemble spreading wings and were originally called butterfly bannerstones. Many were made of banded stone with beautiful graining, attractive coloration, or fanciful spots on the surface (Fowler-1963). Beside adding weight tot he Atlatl, they served as good luck charms to guide the spear accurately toward its target. The most highly polished forms show that great value was placed on these weights. The finest examples were possibly used as clan symbols or designation of rank (Fig. 24).

The Whaletail form appears during the Transitional Period (3700-2700 B.P.). It was made of local sedmentary stones. Most examples have a central perforation, but some have a groove instead. These forms resemble a whales tail as they have points at each tip. Sometimes this type reached a 12" spread. They were harder to use on Atlatls because of their size and may have been used as ceremonial objects. This form reached a peak of design and manufacture, not evident with earlier models. The whale was the most highly prized hunting prey (Hoffman-1991)

 

References:

Fowler, William S.

  1. Classification of Stone Implements of the Northeast. Bulletin of the M.A.S. Vol. 25 (1) 1-29.

 

Hoffman, Curtiss

  1. A Handbook of Indian Artifacts from Southern New England. M.A.S. Special Bulletin No. 4. Revised from 1963 text by William S. Fowler.

 

Koup, William S.

  1. Bannerstones – What Are They? Prehistoric American. Volume 36, No. (2) 3-5.

 

Lutz, David L.

2000 The Archaic Bannerstone – It’s Chronological History and Purpose. From 6000 B.C. to 1000 B.C.

 

 

POUNDING EQUIPMENT

 

Pounding stones were used during all cultural periods. They were used for many tasks from percussion flaking to the making of baskets, wooden bowls, dugout, log mortars, and ceramic pots. Materials such as quartz, quartzite, felsite and basalt were the most common choices. Local types include the following: (Fowler-1963 and Hoffman-1991).

Hammerstone (9000-400 B.P.): Many were natural hard river cobbles, that show battering at one or both ends or around the edges. They appear in various sizes and were used for different types of work. Sometimes Hammerstones are found with knapping kits used for percussion flaking. They were used to peck tools such as gouges, axes, celts, pestles, etc. into rough shape at the quarry. The pre-forms were then brought back to camp for finishing. (Hoffman-1991).

Grooved Hammerstones-Late Archaic-Late Woodland (6000-400 B.P.): These have a pecked groove around the middle (transversely) and the ends are battered. This groove accomodated thongs, which lashed the implement to a handle. Materials used include impure granite or sandstone. Large sizes (Mauls) show little battering on the ends and were probably used to drive wooden stakes or to split wood staves for basket making (Fowler-1963).

Pitted Poundingstones-Early Woodland to Late Woodland (2700-400 B.P.): These usually occur in larger sizes. Circular pits are pecked on two opposite faces. They may have been used as finger grips for an implement to crush and knead clay in preparation for making clay pottery. Larger flat stones with several (depressions) pits on the surface were used to crush nuts. (Fowler-1963).

Muller-Late Archaic to Late Woodland (6000-400 B.P.): This is another grinding tool used to process maise or nuts in shallow stone mortars. It was often a naturally shaped cobble, with little modification. (Hoffman-1991).

Anvils were used during all cultural periods. They were flat blocks of stone with a hard surface and used for flaking artifacts or to grind bone, seeds, paint or nut meal. Small examples were portable and called Lap Anvils. Larger sizes were stationary and called Block Anvils. (Hoffman-1991).

 

References:

Fowler, William S.

  1. Classification of Stone Implements of the Northeast. Bulletin of the M.A.S. Vol. 25 (1) 1-29.

 

Hoffman, Curtiss

  1. A Handbook of Indian Artifacts from Southern New England. M.A.S. Special Bulletin No. 4. Revised from 1963 text by William S. Fowler.

 

STONE BOWL PRODUCTS

 

There are 20 to 30 known quarries in southern New England, that contain outcrops of steatite (soapstone) and chlorite. Steatite is a variety of talc and usually appears in gray, grayish green or brown. Chlorite is a finer grained companion product that became highly prized for pipe making. It is found in grayish green and brown. Most bowls were made of steatite, although a few appear in chlorite, granite schist or graphite. When first exposed in the ground these materials are soft enough to work into bowls, pipes, pendants and atlatl weights. Four thousand years ago Indians first discovered the great potential for stone bowl products. During the next 2000+ years man quickly began his first great industry. Instead of cooking in bark receptacles or wooden bowls, containers of steatite with its heat retaining properties, advanced the standard of living. Liquid foods could now be cooked and stored for later use. Diet quickly changed from solid food (meat and fish) to a liquid diet. (Fowler-1967 & 1969).

This industrial age quickly expanded as new products were discovered. Large kettles were made that held up to four gallons. Various sized bowls were made, as well as drinking cups (ladles), platters, spoons, and small plates and dishes. Lug handles were added at one or both ends of these vessels, so as to facilitate carrying. Paint cups were the smallest containers made and often had handles too.

William S. Fowler (1893-1983) spent nine years digging at 7 quarries in southern New England, plus one year at a Pennsylvania quarry. During his field excavations much knowledge was gained into understanding the process of stone bowl making and the types of tools required for this production.

After selecting a good outcrop of steatite, the outside of the vessel (bottom) was roughly shaped. Then the outline of the bowl form, or edge, is cut away and a groove out around the block to a desired depth. This block is then undercut and broken off from the lode, with a flat surface. The outside of the vessel is then trimmed and shaped, with the lugs being formed. After an outline of the interior was marked out, the inside hollowing began. This task of carving out the center was the most difficult and many bowls were broken during this process. If pecking was carried deeper than necessary to remove the central block of material, breakage would occur. The gradual scraping and thinning of the walls came next. The finest vessels were only ½ inch thick but most of this finish work was carried out back at the home village. (Fowler-1966 & 1967).

At the start of bowl making, when steatite was near the surface, quarriers could obtain good obtain good material without removing unwanted debris. As work progresses and the lode became deeper, tailings had to be removed tot he quarry dump. Women and children soon accompanied the men to the quarry and bowl making became a family affair. Removal of waste was necessary to allow quarrying to lower depths (5 to 7 feet). Stone bowl making remained a male dominated industry. (Fowler-1967).

Many local archaeologists believe that the industry of stone bowl making started in New England and gradually spread southward through the Appalachians, wherever steatite outcrops occurred (Fowler-1967). More specialized tools have been found at local quarries and shows that northern quarriers had advanced further in this industry.

The Oaklawn Quarry in Rhode Island seems to contain the best quality of steatite and chlorite and was most often used by our local Indians. Hundreds of broken bowl and pipe form fragments are scattered throughout the debris. It appears that after bowl making stopped during the Middle Woodland Period (A.D. 300), that pipe making began and continued for hundreds of years. At that time women began to make pottery vessels and an industrial revolution took place, in which women replaced men as the industrialists of a new age (Fowler-1967). Many different types of tools have been found at the quarry. Following is a list of the most important types used in bowl making;

 

 

BOWL MAKING TOOLS

 

End Picks: Have a stubby point and were used to peck out steatite from the inside of the bowl and to peck away debris, while cutting out the bowl-form from a ledge or boulder. Basalt and quart m.

Hand Gouge & Scoup Chisels: Both used to gouge out the interior of small products such as cups or bowls. Usually a hand held tool made of quartz, quartzite or rhyolite.

Shavers: Were used to thin walls of the bowl or drinking cup. Usually made of quartz.

Abrading Scraper: Was used to hollow out bowls by sawing and scraping excess steatite, during the wall thinning process.

Abradingstone: Used to smooth over the pecked course surface both inside and outside of the bowl by abrasion.

Quarry Knife: Has a course serrated edge and is used to saw off sections of unwanted steatite.

Mauls: Were used to bump off chunks of stone materials that obstructed the quarrying process. This was a hafted implement.

Full Grooved Axes: Worn out specimens were used the same as End Picks to remove steatite, while cutting out a bowl-form from the steatite ledge.

Spiked Tail Breaker and the Triangular Tail Breaker: Were tail removing tools used to loosen trampled waste (chips and dust) from the quarrying operation. Granite, quartzite & pegatite m.

Quarry Hand Spade: Was used to shovel loosened tailings into baskets for removal to the quarry dump. Clearing this debris allowed quarrying to lower depths. Shale, chlorite schist, steatite and granite materials used for this tool. (Fowler-1963).

 

References:

Fowler, William S.

  1. Classification of Stone Implements of the Northeast. The Massachusetts Archaeological Society Bulletin Vol. 25 (1); 1-29.
  1. Ceremonial and Domestic Products of Aboriginal New England. The Massachusetts Archaeological Society Bulletin Vol. 27 (3&4); 33-68.
  2. Oaklawn Quarry: Stone Bowl and Pipe Making. The Massachusetts Archaeological Society Bulletin Vol. 29 (1); 1-17.
  1. The Wilbraham Stone Bowl Quarry. The Massachusetts Archaeological Society Bulletin Vol. 30 (3&4); 9-22.

 

 

 

 

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